Hindi actor, writer, director and producer born in Durg, MP. Son of the Raja of Raigarh’s chief minister. Degree in literature from the University of Nagpur (1937). Wrote many short stories. Started as actor in Bombay Talkies playing ineffectual lover opposite Devika Rani in Jeevan Prabhat (1937) . Prominent early instance of a total author: an actor- director of mid-budget socials usually scripted by and starring himself. Films often claimed classic European sources (e.g. Olivier’s Hamlet, 1948). Started Kishore Sahu Prod. (1940) and Hindustan Chitra (1944). Part of late 40s Filmistan stable. Wrote Insaan (1944) and Apnapan (1977); wrote dialogues for Vasan’s Aurat (1967) and Teen Bahuraniyan (1968). Villainous figure in several Dev Anand films e.g. Kala Pani (1958), Guide (1965), Hare Rama Hare Krishna (1971).